Counseling is a complex field, and understanding the different types of consultation available can be a challenge. In this article, we'll delve into the four main types of consultation in counseling, as outlined by Caplan: client-centered case consultation, consultation-centered consultation, program-centered consultation, and administrative consultation. We'll also discuss the importance of reference manuals and fidelity controls, as well as the potential benefits of consultation in research and development (R&D) efforts. Finally, we'll look at the impact of continuous and interrupted consultation on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) skills.
When it comes to client-centered case consultation, the consultant meets with the respondent in an office setting and presents the consultation as a collaborative effort. This type of consultation is usually performed before implementation. On the other hand, program-centered consultation involves creating reference manuals and monitoring fidelity to those manuals through standardized fidelity controls. This helps to ensure that the components of the consultation are methodologically sound. Research has demonstrated that when consultant competence is low, a supportive alliance between consultant and therapist can negatively predict therapist adherence.
It's also important to note that the effects of training and consultation on client outcomes are typically smaller than the effects of a doctor's behavior on client outcomes. Therefore, it's essential to identify effective consultation techniques in order to maximize results. When it comes to CBT skills, people who had interrupted the consultation showed a slight decline in their skills, while those who participated in continuous consultation showed improvements and reported using CBT skills more with their patients. This suggests that continuous consultation can be beneficial for developing CBT skills. Overall, understanding the different types of consultation available in counseling is essential for maximizing results. Reference manuals and fidelity controls can help to ensure that components of the consultation are methodologically sound, while continuous consultation can help to improve CBT skills.
By understanding these different types of consultations, counselors can better serve their clients.